Thus, each variable goes in a separate column. For example, if we had measured the height and weight of a group of individuals, the data in SPSS Statistics would look like the following: The Subject column has been added so that it is clear that each individual is placed on a separate row.

## What is SPSS and How Does It Work?

Thus, each variable goes in a separate column. For example, if we had measured the height and weight of a group of individuals, the data in SPSS Statistics would look like the following: The Subject column has been added so that it is clear that each individual is placed on a separate row.

However, SPSS Statistics does not need you to enter this column, and it is mostly for you to be able to better visualize your data. So, even if we ignored the Subject column, we can see that one individual was 1. How to label variable columns is in our Working with Variables guide. To add more variables, simply add more columns – one column per variable. The only variation to this is discussed later in this guide when we have to enter repeated measures.

They are groups where the individuals in each group are unique i. In this sense, you could call the groups “mutually-exclusive”. A common example is when differentiating between gender. You want to label some of your individuals as female and others as male. To identify which subjects were males and which were females, you need to create a “grouping variable” in SPSS Statistics. This is a separate column that includes information on which group a subject belongs to.

We do this by labelling our groups numerically. For example, we label “males” as “1” and “females” as “2”. By using the value attribute we can label these numbers as representing males and females, respectively. An example is shown below: Looking at the columns on the left we can see that we have created a “grouping variable” called “Gender” that has two categories: Because we labelled the numbers using the value attribute we can use the Value Label Button to switch to the text version of the “grouping variable” categories.

In this example, we can see that “1” and “2” are replaced by “Male” and “Female”, respectively. How to do this is explained in our guide on Working with Variables. We can see in this example that the first three subjects were males and the last four subjects were females. What if you have more than two categories of your “grouping variable”?

Simple, just add more numbers with, we recommend, corresponding text labels. Join the 10,s of students, academics and professionals who rely on Laerd Statistics. This can occur when you have measured the same subject for the same variable at more than one time point or under more than one condition.

For example, you measured body weight at the beginning and end of a weight-loss programme. To enter this into SPSS Statistics, you must ignore the “one-variable-one-column” rule and put each time point or condition in a new column as follows: It does not matter what you call these “related” columns you could have called them weight1 and weight2, for example , as long the columns make sense to you. This is important as SPSS Statistics cannot tell the difference between columns that contain different variables and columns that contain a repeated variable.

Therefore, it cannot help you. This will require two columns that act as “grouping variables”, as shown below: Here, we can see that, for example, Subject 1 was male and sedentary, and Subject 7 was female and active.

Notice that we are using the text labels as described earlier in this guide for added clarity. If we had males and females undertake a weight-loss programme and we weighted them pre- and post-intervention, we would have the following setup in SPSS Statistics: To generate this type of setup, simply used the rules you have learnt in this guide under the Defining Separate Groups and Entering Repeated Measures sections.

### The Calculation

Our guides have step-by-step instructions with screenshots, notes and explanations to guide you through the SPSS Statistics procedure required to analyse your. SPSS tutorial for beginners. Step by step solutions to introductory topics, like how to enter data and find the mean. Always free. Stats made simple!. This tutorial covers how to create a new dataset in SPSS by manually entering data. Also covered is the difference between row numbers.

## Calculate Mean & Standard Deviation in SPSS

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### The “one person, one row” Rule

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### VIDEO: What is SPSS and How Does It Work? | edu CBA

How to calculate standard deviation and variance in SPSS. How to Analyse Data Using SPSS. SPSS (The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software has been developed by IBM and it is widely. How to Enter Data in SPSS. SPSS is a statistical analysis program that is used in a variety of fields, from market researchers to government agencies. It allows.